Our reference architecture is distributed by default with resources spread across multiple AWS availability zones. This ensures a high level of availability. We also employ several caching techniques to dramatically improve response times for the end user.
MageCloudKit is built with some of the latest AWS products including Amazon EC2 Container Service, Amazon Aurora for MySQL and Amazon Elastic File System for sharing media assets. It is easy to integrate third party vendors including Cloudflare, Bugsnag, Datadog, Algolia and Nosto.
It was designed with the concept of immutability which is a central tenet in the DevOps practice. This concept is increasingly important as you begin to scale because it becomes unmaintainable to SSH into servers and manually configure them.
Our architecture uses Docker to run all of the applications on an App Cluster. An App Cluster is our terminology for an Amazon ECS Cluster. We refer to the individual EC2 instances as 'App Servers'. Customers may wish to use a single or multiple App Clusters to run their applications. For instance you may wish to run the Magento Admin Panel on a seperate group of servers.
Our default App is designed to run Magento and is comprised of the following containers:
Nginx Webserver: To serve static assets and reverse proxy requests to the PHP-FPM container.
PHP-FPM: To run the Magento application.
Blackfire (optional): This container runs the Blackfire agent.
Customers may wish to create further Apps to run applications such as Wordpress.
Each environment launches resources inside an Amazon VPC (virtual private network). Internally each environment has both a public and private subnet. This is used for better network isolation and security. We use Amazon NAT Gateway to allow the instances in the private subnet to connect to the internet. The NAT gateways are available in each of the three availability zones.
Our VPC architecture is inspired by a blog post written by Ben Whaley titled "A Reference VPC architecture". We deploy three separate subnets for running public facing resources such as load balancers and Bastion instances, a private subnet for App Servers and then a data persistence subnet for cache and database resources.
Our architecture utilizes the following server roles and instances:
Bastion: The Bastion instance runs in the public subnet and is used to access the resources inside the Amazon
VPC. Refer to the SSH guide for more information.
App Servers: App servers form an ECS cluster and run all of our Docker containers.
Jenkins: The Jenkins server role is used to run the Jenkins automation server software.
The Bastion instance is based on the Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (long-term support release) and the App Servers are based on the Amazon Linux 2 AMI. By default all of the instances are hardened and have critical automatic software updates enabled.
These EC2 instances are part of an App Cluster (ECS cluster) that runs the applications. They run the ECS agent which is responsible for starting Docker containers when you deploy an application.
Deployments are handled by ECS by creating a new task definition then updating the ECS service to use it. During a deployment ECS will start the new containers, connect them to the load balancer then wait for them to become healthy before terminating the old ones.
MageCloudKit includes modules for both Memcached & Redis using Amazon Elasticache. By default we run two Redis Cache clusters to store the Magento cache and session data.
MageCloudKit includes a module to run a database using Amazon Aurora. Amazon Aurora can deliver up to a 5x increase in performance on the same hardware. Amazon Aurora is a drop in replacement for MySQL and supports the same protocol and tools. In addition Aurora uses the concept of clusters for better reliability and performance.
We utilize Route53 for a basic form of service discovery. We achieve this by using an internal hosted zone with common DNS records for the database, cache and EFS filesystem.
Out of the box, MageCloudKit creates the following DNS records:
Redis Cache Cluster
Redis Session Cluster